Electrical symbol A to Z

Electrical symbol/electronic symbols and functional

Capacitor symbol

A capacitor is an electronic component that use to block D.C. current, Smoothing DC power supply and it also the important part in R/C circuit, equalizer. A capacitor can store current and bring the current out almost instantly, a big capacitor can melt a metal that short circuit when it charged.
An electrolytic capacitor has polarities, reverse the polarities can make the capacitor explode, damaged and lead to severe injury.





Diode symbol

A diode is an electronic component that allows current flow only one direction. The current flow from anode to Cathode (+ to -) so the electronic component is used in a rectifier, reverse polarity protection. A silicon diode has a forward voltage of approximately 0.6 volts, a Schottky diode has a lower forward voltage drop and it switching between on and off faster than a silicon diode. A silicon diode has a voltage drop in the component around 0.6 volts so when 12 volts power supply pass through a diode the output drop to 12 - 0.6 = 11.4 volts.

Hall effect sensor symbol

Hall effect sensor is an electronic component that sends output when detecting the magnetic field. It's widely used for speed meter, brush less motor.A 3144 is a classic hall effect sensor, it sends output low when detecting any magnetic field. See how to use a Hall effect sensor here 
http://www.easyandworkproject.xyz/2016/06/hall-effect-sensor-wiring-diagram-and.html



NPN Transistor symbol

NPN Transistor use in many electronic device, the transistor can amplify current until it high enough to work for another electronic component in a circuit. The amplify current gain from NPN transistor call beta(input current x times), the beta value range from 5 to over 500 depending on working current and voltage.  NPN transistor start working when voltage between BASE pin and Emitter pin greater than 0.6 volts. 


Resistor symbol

A resistor is an electronic component that limits current in an electronic circuit. The resistor also can set as voltage divider but output voltage swing when connecting to low resistance load.
A resistor has a color code that shows the resistant value
You can learn how to read the color code here

Resistor color code


Thermistor symbol

A Thermistor is an electronic component that resistance change (decrease or increase depends on model) when temperature increase or decrease. Thermistor has a resistance around 1 - 10 kilo-ohms depends on model, the component is the most important part of temperature sensor circuit, air conditioner, thermal switch.




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