Resistor color code

A resistor is the most important electrical component in almost every electronic circuit, it can limit current to any load such as led, transistor, opamp, etc. We must read resistor color code if we want to know the resistive value, tolerance, temperature coefficient. Resistors have different color bands (3,4,5,6) the more color bands the more resistor's information.Now let's start with 3 bands resistor color code.

The above resistor has only 3 bands First digit, Second digit, and multiply. A 3 bands resistor color code has fixed +/-20% tolerance that means if color code value is 1,000 ohms the real life resistive value may be +/- 200 ohms. 
4 band resistor color code

A 4 bands resistor color code has tolerance value color strip, the resistor on an above picture has 5% tolerance. This type of resistor uses in a regular circuit such as television,radio,washing machine.

5 bands resistor color code

A 5 bands resistor color codes have third digit color bands.
1(first digit) 0(second dig…

10 watts 8 ohms class d amplifier pam8610 sound test

Pam8610 IC is 10 watts @ 8 ohms (15 watts @ 4 ohms small heat sink require) stereo class d amplifier with very high efficiency over 90% and the amplifier works well without any heatsink at full power!!! .

The amplifier board is very low cost ( around 1 $) but deliver 10 watts @ 8 ohms power from 13 volts power supply.
As you can see in my video that the amp board require only one 100 uf electrolytic capacitor for supply decoupling to eliminate hum from switching power supply(some ic amplifier require 1000 uf to eliminate hum from the power supply).

Sound testing:

The amplifier sound good with good bass respond  good bass impact and well control (kick bass very good). High frequency clean, impact well and flat but lack transparent. Singer vocal is clean but not transparent. The sound stage is wide but space between instrument not precise. pam 8610 amp board is the quiet amp with very less hiss noise (5 cm away from tweeter to my ear :) which is not a big problem at all and the amp do not oscillate with 1.5 meters speaker wire, not like some class d board amp.

PAM 8610 specification

Power Range: DC 7.5V-15V ( can power the amp from car and motorcycle batteries)
Recommended voltage: DC 12V(3A)
Output Power: 10W x 2(8Ω) 15Wx2(4Ω)
Frequency Response: 20HZ-30KHZ(-1 db)
queinsent Current: 20 mah (DC12V)
SNR: - 90 dbs

See sound test with JVC loudspeaker.
I use Olympus e-pm2 camera built-in stereo microphone to record sound and video resolution is @1080p

The amplifier board is very tiny 1"x1"dimension.

If you want low-cost but high-quality board amplifier TA 2024 class t amplifier  is a good choice for you. Find TA2024 amplifier here

See how to connect volume control to PAM 8610 amplifier board here

See how to add a power supply filter capacitor to PAM8610 amp board to improve the amp board sound here

Hope you enjoy.

Pam 8610 board amplifier.


  1. How should I use this one with 4ohms speakers? Thank you.

    1. According to datasheet
      THD+N = 0.1%, f = 1kHz, RL = 4Ω (Note 3) 15 W

      Note: 3. Heat sink is required for high power output.

      Yes!!! you can use it without problem, if you play loud music your board-amplifier need a small heatsink attach to pam8610 chip

    2. Does It matter if I chose a 50v 100 uf electrolytic capacitor or a 35v model. Or is a noteer model needed?

    3. If you feed the pam8610 board with 12 volts dc, you need capacitor voltage value at least 16 volts. Using high voltage rate capacitor doesn't effect sound quality and make the cap's life longer but the higher voltage model cost is higher.


  2. Hi, I'm having problems with this amplifier and I saw your video, could you help me please? my pam8310 goes off when it plays a deep bass and turns on again, I do not know what's going on, with low volume works perfect but when I increase the volume goes off
    I wait for your answer thanks :)

    1. Provide me some information.
      how many ohms loudspeaker?
      how many ampere of your adaptor?

      Normally, if you play loud music with deep bass with low impedance loudspeaker, you amplifier work hard and may activate built-in thermal protection.

    2. I am also having the same problem.. whenever i try to increase my volume its goes off and then restars itself.. why is this happening.

      I am using...

      1. 12 volt 2 amp adapter
      2. 2 piece 10 watt 8 ohm speaker (also tried 2 piece 15 watt 4ohm speaker)

      Please help me!

    3. 1 Don't boost bass too much.
      2 Check adapter it may has high AC ripple
      3 Sometimes, the Pam 8610 ic design board has poor heating transfer performance or not pass qc.

      The first solution is easy to check, lower bass in equalizer and test again


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